VCWG
Sampling methods for adult malaria vectors
Forest-goers and residual malaria: Addressing the challenge
New tools to reach outdoor-biting malaria vectors
Role and status of bednets, indoor residual spraying, and insecticide resistance in Asia Pacific

Welcome to APMEN TechTalks. Series of Webinars design to facilitate information sharing and co-learning around vector control topics.

Sampling methods for adult malaria vectors

The Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) Vector Control Working Group is hosting a series of vector-related webinars to keep the elimination momentum.  Vector Control remains the single most effective means for combating malaria. This is mostly done by way of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN’s) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). To implement effective vector control you need to know which vector species are present in your area, and their abundance. This is done by way of vector surveillance and involves trapping mosquitoes. Historically, the “Gold Standard” for catching malaria vectors has been Human Landing Catches, but increasingly there is a reluctance to using this because of the increasing risk of arboviral infections and other ethical issues. This Webinar explores alternative ways to conduct vector surveillance and the relative efficiencies of these methods.

Topics

The efficiency of Cow-baited net traps in sampling malaria vector diversity and abundance by Dr. Brandy St. Laurent, Staff Scientist, Wellcome Sanger Institute

Comparative efficiency of Double Net Trap and Human Decoy Trap relative to Human Landing Catches by Professor Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Head, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Comparing malaria vector captures from cow- and human- baited traps by Dr Amelie Vantaux, Contractual researcher, Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Institute Pasteur of Cambodia

Moderated by Dr Leo Braack, Technical Lead (APMEN Vector Control Working Group), Senior Vector Control Specialist, Malaria Consortium, Bangkok, Thailand

Presentations and Q&A answered by panelists can be downloaded below

Countries in the Asia Pacific region have done extremely well in achieving impressing levels of malaria reduction, but many still face the challenges of pernicious residual malaria. In Greater Mekong Subregion, much of this remaining malaria occurs within remote forested areas among forest-goers and mobile populations, where transmission happens outdoors. In these situations, bed nets and indoor spraying are not effective. Much has been published and debated on the subject but remains as intractable a challenge as ever. What to do about it?

Topics

Diverse challenges and solutions for elimination of residual malaria transmission in South East Asia by Dr . Bill Hawley, Chief, Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, U.S. CDC

Bill Hawley is currently Chief, Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, at the US CDC.  He has a PhD in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from the University of Oregon and an MPH from Emory University.  He is the former Country Director, US CDC in Indonesia (4 years) and Malaria Program Officer, UNICEF Indonesia (4 years).  Prior to his time in Indonesia, he carried out operational research on malaria control in western Kenya with the Kenya Medical Research Institute (6 years).  More recently, he has supported malaria control and elimination efforts in Nigeria, Myanmar, and Indonesia. He began his career as a biologist and durian connoisseur teaching Biology and Mathematics in a Malaysian High School (Sekolah Menengah Sains Trengganu) in the late 1970s.  He has published over 100 papers on mosquitoes, malaria, and public health program implementation.

Residual malaria transmission in Greater Mekong Sub region: Role of Public-Private Sector by Dr. Jeffrey Hii, WHO Malaria Scientist (Retired), APMEN VCWG Technical Lead (Former)

Jeffrey Hii has a PhD in biosystematics and genetics of Anopheles dirus-balabacensis complex from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He is a retired WHO Malaria Scientist, previous technical lead of APMEN Vector Control Working Group, former Senior Vector Control specialist, (Malaria Consortium), Adjunct Research Fellow (James Cook University), and medical entomologist in the Malaysian NMCP (Rancangan Kawalan Penyakit Bawaan Vektor, Sabah). Prior to his time in Greater Mekong Subregion, he conducted operational research on vector ecology, malaria transmission dynamics, appropriate technology for vector control, lymphatic filariasis and dengue control in Papua New Guinea, East Malaysia, Philippines, Nepal, and the Solomon Islands. He enjoys photography, community gardening and exotic tropical fruits; and is a firm believer of pro-active community-based vector control. He has published over 90 papers on mosquitoes, malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis.

Plasmodium knowlesi and forest-goers: What’s next? by Dr. Indra Vythilingam, Professor, Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya

Indra Vythilingam (PhD) is currently a Professor in the Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. She worked as a Principal Research Scientist, in Environmental Health Institute, Singapore and in the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in Kuala Lumpur. She has contributed vastly to the field of vector biology and control for the past 30 years. She incriminated the vectors of simian malaria in Malaysia and continues to work on it. Her work will be the road map for the next generation of malaria parasites which will be affecting humans after the elimination of human malaria. She was awarded the Sandosham Gold medal in 2007 by the Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine for her contribution towards parasitology and Tropical Medicine. In 2017 she received Malaysia’s Research Star Award for outstanding national research in Tropical diseases from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia and Elsevier.

Defining a strategy to prevent forest malaria: a prophylaxis trial in northeastern Cambodia by Dr. Rupam Tripura, Researcher, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit

Rupam Tripura has been working as a clinical researcher based at the research stations in Cambodia with Mahidol-Oxford Topical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Bangkok Thailand since 2008. He completed MBBS at Chittagong Medical College, Bangladesh, in 2001, and obtained his PhD in 2018 at University of Amsterdam on Thesis “The asymptomatic parasite reservoir and targeted mass drug administration in the context of accelerated malaria elimination in western Cambodia”. The focus of his work has been to conduct clinical trials to understand the nature of drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in western Cambodia and to develop treatment regimens, and strategies to combat the spread of resistance. He conducted a series of studies in Cambodia on drug efficacy trials, epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria and the evaluation of mass drug administration as a strategy to eliminate drug resistant P. falciparum malaria.

Bednets and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have been the mainstay interventions against malaria in recent decades. Together, these tools have translated in dramatic reductions in global malaria cases. Many nations approaching the pre-elimination phase still have residual malaria, largely as a result of outdoor transmission. While bednets and IRS provide a high level of protection indoors, if properly used, no vector control tools have been found to provide similar levels of protection against outdoor biting mosquitoes in a cost-effective, practical and scalable manner. To address outdoor-biting vectors and residual malaria, we need to find methods to reduce contact between humans and mosquitoes outside the home, either by reducing vector populations, or through personal protection. This webinar will examine some of the options receiving attention as potential useful tools.

Topics and speakers

Endectocides for Malaria Elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion by Dr Kevin Kobylinski

Dr Kevin Kobylinski is a Medical Entomologist based at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Entomology. He has a PhD in Microbiology from Colorado State University and an MS in Medical Entomology from the University of Florida. He has spent the last several years developing the concept of ivermectin mass drug administration for malaria parasite transmission suppression, with keen interest on integration of malaria and neglected tropical disease control efforts. During his PhD he demonstrated the impact of ivermectin mass drug administration on malaria transmission in Southeastern Senegal. He has characterized the ivermectin susceptibility and sporontocidal impact on important Anopheles from the Greater Mekong Subregion, Africa, and South America in laboratory studies and clinical trials, and is collaborating with Mahidol University to evaluate the impact of ivermectin mass drug administration on Plasmodium transmission in Southern Thailand.

Transfluthrin-treated products for protection against outdoor-biting mosquitoes by Lina Finda

Lina Finda is a research scientist at the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania. She received her BSc in Biochemistry and Biology/Anthropology from Western Washington University (USA) in 2010, and in 2014 received a Masters of Public Health with dual concentrations in Maternal and Child Health and Health Education and Promotion, from Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (USA). Ms. Finda joined Ifakara Health Institute on 2015 and since then she has been working on several project to investigate the magnitude and drivers of malaria transmission, and to understand the interactions between Malaria vectors and humans. Ms. Finda also works as a liaison and disseminator between the Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara office, and its surrounding community. Ms. Finda is currently pursuing her PhD, registered at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. Her research focuses on developing and testing effective stakeholder engagement models for novel technologies for malaria control. Her research is based in Tanzania.

ATSB® Bait-Stations supporting Malaria elimination by Mr Amir Galili

Amir founded Westham in 2006 and currently serves as CEO. Prior to founding Westham, Amir was the founder and CEO of Trivnet, a micro-payment technology company. Amir has significant experience in product research and development. Amir holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering and an M.B.A. from Tel Aviv University. 

Ever since the inception of knowledge-based malaria control more than a century ago, vector control has been the primary strategy for combatting malaria. In recent decades, the focus has been on the use of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) of insecticides. In Asia Pacific, much of the transmission occurs outdoors, and such outdoor transmission is a major driver of residual malaria. However, reducing historic emphasis of use of ITN and IRS risks resurgence of malaria due to resumption of high levels of indoor biting, so this has to continue. What is the current level of use of IRS as control tool, and of bed nets, and how are we doing in monitoring continued susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides?

Dr. Pradeep Srivastava is the former Head of the Division of Entomology & Vector Control, National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) MoHFW, India.  Director: Absolute Absolute Human Care Foundation India. Co-Chair: APMEN VCWG. Doctorate in 1984 on Insecticide Residue Analysis from University of Allahabad. Elected as Life Member of Indian Society for Malaria and other Communicable Diseases (FISCD). Elected as member of Royal College of Entomological Society London  (FRES) in 1993.India nodal officer for elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis during 2004-2016. Adviser to WHO on many occasions for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Recipient of VestergaardFrandsen Award 2019 by National Academy of Vector Borne Diseases, India.

Dr. Tessa Knox is the WHO Advisor to the Vanuatu Ministry of Health on malaria and other vector-borne diseases. She holds a PhD in Tropical Public Health from the University of Queensland. Her work with WHO and earlier with academia and private sector has focussed on vector surveillance and control, mainly in Asia, Africa, the Americas and the Pacific.

Prof. Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap is Head of the Department of Entomology in the Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. His work is focused on blood-sucking insects affecting humans and livestock.  His current research topics include bionomics of vectors of human and livestock diseases, vector incrimination and vector competence studies; vector behavior in response to insecticides used in control interventions and in response to the use of repellents and candidate botanicals; biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance and some studies on vector population genetics.  One of his notable accomplishments is the patenting of the “Excito-Repellency Box” (PATENT N0. 19319 on Excito-Repellency Escape Chamber for Behavioral Test in Mosquito Vectors) which is considered as a highly useful tool in studying mosquito behavior involving different insecticides used in disease control programs.

Sampling methods for adult malaria vectors

Welcome to APMEN TechTalks. Series of Webinars design to facilitate information sharing and co-learning around vector control topics.

Sampling methods for adult malaria vectors

The Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) Vector Control Working Group is hosting a series of vector-related webinars to keep the elimination momentum.  Vector Control remains the single most effective means for combating malaria. This is mostly done by way of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN’s) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). To implement effective vector control you need to know which vector species are present in your area, and their abundance. This is done by way of vector surveillance and involves trapping mosquitoes. Historically, the “Gold Standard” for catching malaria vectors has been Human Landing Catches, but increasingly there is a reluctance to using this because of the increasing risk of arboviral infections and other ethical issues. This Webinar explores alternative ways to conduct vector surveillance and the relative efficiencies of these methods.

Topics

The efficiency of Cow-baited net traps in sampling malaria vector diversity and abundance by Dr. Brandy St. Laurent, Staff Scientist, Wellcome Sanger Institute

Comparative efficiency of Double Net Trap and Human Decoy Trap relative to Human Landing Catches by Professor Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Head, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Comparing malaria vector captures from cow- and human- baited traps by Dr Amelie Vantaux, Contractual researcher, Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Institute Pasteur of Cambodia

Moderated by Dr Leo Braack, Technical Lead (APMEN Vector Control Working Group), Senior Vector Control Specialist, Malaria Consortium, Bangkok, Thailand

Presentations and Q&A answered by panelists can be downloaded below

Forest-goers and residual malaria: Addressing the challenge

Countries in the Asia Pacific region have done extremely well in achieving impressing levels of malaria reduction, but many still face the challenges of pernicious residual malaria. In Greater Mekong Subregion, much of this remaining malaria occurs within remote forested areas among forest-goers and mobile populations, where transmission happens outdoors. In these situations, bed nets and indoor spraying are not effective. Much has been published and debated on the subject but remains as intractable a challenge as ever. What to do about it?

Topics

Diverse challenges and solutions for elimination of residual malaria transmission in South East Asia by Dr . Bill Hawley, Chief, Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, U.S. CDC

Bill Hawley is currently Chief, Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, at the US CDC.  He has a PhD in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from the University of Oregon and an MPH from Emory University.  He is the former Country Director, US CDC in Indonesia (4 years) and Malaria Program Officer, UNICEF Indonesia (4 years).  Prior to his time in Indonesia, he carried out operational research on malaria control in western Kenya with the Kenya Medical Research Institute (6 years).  More recently, he has supported malaria control and elimination efforts in Nigeria, Myanmar, and Indonesia. He began his career as a biologist and durian connoisseur teaching Biology and Mathematics in a Malaysian High School (Sekolah Menengah Sains Trengganu) in the late 1970s.  He has published over 100 papers on mosquitoes, malaria, and public health program implementation.

Residual malaria transmission in Greater Mekong Sub region: Role of Public-Private Sector by Dr. Jeffrey Hii, WHO Malaria Scientist (Retired), APMEN VCWG Technical Lead (Former)

Jeffrey Hii has a PhD in biosystematics and genetics of Anopheles dirus-balabacensis complex from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He is a retired WHO Malaria Scientist, previous technical lead of APMEN Vector Control Working Group, former Senior Vector Control specialist, (Malaria Consortium), Adjunct Research Fellow (James Cook University), and medical entomologist in the Malaysian NMCP (Rancangan Kawalan Penyakit Bawaan Vektor, Sabah). Prior to his time in Greater Mekong Subregion, he conducted operational research on vector ecology, malaria transmission dynamics, appropriate technology for vector control, lymphatic filariasis and dengue control in Papua New Guinea, East Malaysia, Philippines, Nepal, and the Solomon Islands. He enjoys photography, community gardening and exotic tropical fruits; and is a firm believer of pro-active community-based vector control. He has published over 90 papers on mosquitoes, malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis.

Plasmodium knowlesi and forest-goers: What’s next? by Dr. Indra Vythilingam, Professor, Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya

Indra Vythilingam (PhD) is currently a Professor in the Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. She worked as a Principal Research Scientist, in Environmental Health Institute, Singapore and in the Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in Kuala Lumpur. She has contributed vastly to the field of vector biology and control for the past 30 years. She incriminated the vectors of simian malaria in Malaysia and continues to work on it. Her work will be the road map for the next generation of malaria parasites which will be affecting humans after the elimination of human malaria. She was awarded the Sandosham Gold medal in 2007 by the Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine for her contribution towards parasitology and Tropical Medicine. In 2017 she received Malaysia’s Research Star Award for outstanding national research in Tropical diseases from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia and Elsevier.

Defining a strategy to prevent forest malaria: a prophylaxis trial in northeastern Cambodia by Dr. Rupam Tripura, Researcher, Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit

Rupam Tripura has been working as a clinical researcher based at the research stations in Cambodia with Mahidol-Oxford Topical Medicine Research Unit (MORU), Bangkok Thailand since 2008. He completed MBBS at Chittagong Medical College, Bangladesh, in 2001, and obtained his PhD in 2018 at University of Amsterdam on Thesis “The asymptomatic parasite reservoir and targeted mass drug administration in the context of accelerated malaria elimination in western Cambodia”. The focus of his work has been to conduct clinical trials to understand the nature of drug-resistant P. falciparum malaria in western Cambodia and to develop treatment regimens, and strategies to combat the spread of resistance. He conducted a series of studies in Cambodia on drug efficacy trials, epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria and the evaluation of mass drug administration as a strategy to eliminate drug resistant P. falciparum malaria.

New tools to reach outdoor-biting malaria vectors

Bednets and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have been the mainstay interventions against malaria in recent decades. Together, these tools have translated in dramatic reductions in global malaria cases. Many nations approaching the pre-elimination phase still have residual malaria, largely as a result of outdoor transmission. While bednets and IRS provide a high level of protection indoors, if properly used, no vector control tools have been found to provide similar levels of protection against outdoor biting mosquitoes in a cost-effective, practical and scalable manner. To address outdoor-biting vectors and residual malaria, we need to find methods to reduce contact between humans and mosquitoes outside the home, either by reducing vector populations, or through personal protection. This webinar will examine some of the options receiving attention as potential useful tools.

Topics and speakers

Endectocides for Malaria Elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion by Dr Kevin Kobylinski

Dr Kevin Kobylinski is a Medical Entomologist based at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Entomology. He has a PhD in Microbiology from Colorado State University and an MS in Medical Entomology from the University of Florida. He has spent the last several years developing the concept of ivermectin mass drug administration for malaria parasite transmission suppression, with keen interest on integration of malaria and neglected tropical disease control efforts. During his PhD he demonstrated the impact of ivermectin mass drug administration on malaria transmission in Southeastern Senegal. He has characterized the ivermectin susceptibility and sporontocidal impact on important Anopheles from the Greater Mekong Subregion, Africa, and South America in laboratory studies and clinical trials, and is collaborating with Mahidol University to evaluate the impact of ivermectin mass drug administration on Plasmodium transmission in Southern Thailand.

Transfluthrin-treated products for protection against outdoor-biting mosquitoes by Lina Finda

Lina Finda is a research scientist at the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania. She received her BSc in Biochemistry and Biology/Anthropology from Western Washington University (USA) in 2010, and in 2014 received a Masters of Public Health with dual concentrations in Maternal and Child Health and Health Education and Promotion, from Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (USA). Ms. Finda joined Ifakara Health Institute on 2015 and since then she has been working on several project to investigate the magnitude and drivers of malaria transmission, and to understand the interactions between Malaria vectors and humans. Ms. Finda also works as a liaison and disseminator between the Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara office, and its surrounding community. Ms. Finda is currently pursuing her PhD, registered at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. Her research focuses on developing and testing effective stakeholder engagement models for novel technologies for malaria control. Her research is based in Tanzania.

ATSB® Bait-Stations supporting Malaria elimination by Mr Amir Galili

Amir founded Westham in 2006 and currently serves as CEO. Prior to founding Westham, Amir was the founder and CEO of Trivnet, a micro-payment technology company. Amir has significant experience in product research and development. Amir holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering and an M.B.A. from Tel Aviv University. 

Role and status of bednets, indoor residual spraying, and insecticide resistance in Asia Pacific

Ever since the inception of knowledge-based malaria control more than a century ago, vector control has been the primary strategy for combatting malaria. In recent decades, the focus has been on the use of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) of insecticides. In Asia Pacific, much of the transmission occurs outdoors, and such outdoor transmission is a major driver of residual malaria. However, reducing historic emphasis of use of ITN and IRS risks resurgence of malaria due to resumption of high levels of indoor biting, so this has to continue. What is the current level of use of IRS as control tool, and of bed nets, and how are we doing in monitoring continued susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides?

Dr. Pradeep Srivastava is the former Head of the Division of Entomology & Vector Control, National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) MoHFW, India.  Director: Absolute Absolute Human Care Foundation India. Co-Chair: APMEN VCWG. Doctorate in 1984 on Insecticide Residue Analysis from University of Allahabad. Elected as Life Member of Indian Society for Malaria and other Communicable Diseases (FISCD). Elected as member of Royal College of Entomological Society London  (FRES) in 1993.India nodal officer for elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis during 2004-2016. Adviser to WHO on many occasions for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis. Recipient of VestergaardFrandsen Award 2019 by National Academy of Vector Borne Diseases, India.

Dr. Tessa Knox is the WHO Advisor to the Vanuatu Ministry of Health on malaria and other vector-borne diseases. She holds a PhD in Tropical Public Health from the University of Queensland. Her work with WHO and earlier with academia and private sector has focussed on vector surveillance and control, mainly in Asia, Africa, the Americas and the Pacific.

Prof. Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap is Head of the Department of Entomology in the Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. His work is focused on blood-sucking insects affecting humans and livestock.  His current research topics include bionomics of vectors of human and livestock diseases, vector incrimination and vector competence studies; vector behavior in response to insecticides used in control interventions and in response to the use of repellents and candidate botanicals; biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance and some studies on vector population genetics.  One of his notable accomplishments is the patenting of the “Excito-Repellency Box” (PATENT N0. 19319 on Excito-Repellency Escape Chamber for Behavioral Test in Mosquito Vectors) which is considered as a highly useful tool in studying mosquito behavior involving different insecticides used in disease control programs.