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    Despite the progress made in this decade towards malaria elimination, it remains a significant public health concern in India and many other countries in South Asia and Asia Pacific region. Understanding the historical trends of malaria incidence in relation to various commodity and policy interventions and identifying the factors associated with its occurrence can inform future intervention strategies for malaria elimination goals.


    This study analysed historical malaria cases in India from 1990 to 2022 to assess the annual trends and the impact of key anti-malarial interventions on malaria incidence. Factors associated with malaria incidence were identified using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. Generalized linear, smoothing, autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) and Holt’s models were used to forecast malaria cases from 2023 to 2030.


    The reported annual malaria cases in India during 1990–2000 were 2.38 million, which dropped to 0.73 million cases annually during 2011–2022. The overall reduction from 1990 (2,018,783) to 2022 (176,522) was 91%. The key interventions of the Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP), Intensified Malaria Control Project (IMCP), use of bivalent rapid diagnostic tests (RDT-Pf/Pv), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), and involvement of the Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) as front-line workers were found to result in the decline of malaria significantly. The ARIMA and Holt’s models projected a continued decline in cases with the potential for reaching zero indigenous cases by 2027–2028. Important factors influencing malaria incidence included tribal population density, literacy rate, health infrastructure, and forested and hard-to-reach areas.


    Studies aimed at assessing the impact of major commodity and policy interventions on the incidence of disease and studies of disease forecasting will inform programmes and policymakers of steps needed during the last mile phase to achieve malaria elimination. It is proposed that these time series and disease forecasting studies should be performed periodically using granular (monthly) and meteorological data to validate predictions of prior studies and suggest any changes needed for elimination efforts at national and sub-national levels.