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    VCWG

    Anopheles: Laboratory and field technical documents

    VCWG

    Anopheles: Laboratory and field technical documents

    Strategies
    Collection and Preservation
    Identification (morphology)
    Insecticide Resistance
    Community Engagement
    Anopheles: Insectary SOPs
    Planning and decision making for entomological surveillance
    Vector control and personal protection of migrant and mobile population in the GMS

    Understanding and documenting the presence and characteristics of local mosquito populations in malaria endemic regions is crucial for the development of targeted and meaningful vector control (VC) interventions. Breeding habitats and behaviours vary according to different Anopheles vectors, and can also be affected by changing epidemiological, ecological, and structural features of any given region. Systematically collecting entomological surveillance data can assist local NMCP staff to identify reasons for the success and failure of current VC strategies, help with outbreak response predication and planning, and support the rationale  for research/investment in alternative approaches to reduce the vectorial breeding capacity/vector populations within a given area.

    This section provides key information and guidance to enable practitioners working in Anopheles vector control to successfully design, manage, and monitor related entomological surveillance activities and strategies. This includes global, regional, and country specific toolkits and materials developed by both National Malaria Programmes and partner organisations from across the region, and beyond.

    Cambodia Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance
    Download PDF
    Guidelines and SOPs for Entomological Monitoring and Surveillance, NMCP Myanmar 2019
    Download PDF
    Sri Lanka Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance, 2010
    Download PDF
    Entomological Surveillance Planning Tool
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance for Malaria
    Download PDF
    Monitoring Anopheles Vector Density Form: Pakistan
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for malaria
    Download PDF
    WHO guideline for preparing for certification of malaria elimination
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for Malaria
    Download PDF

    WHO Manual on Practical Entomology_1
    Download PDF
    WHO Manual on Practical Entomology_2
    Download PDF
    Data Collection Forms (1)
    Download PDF
    Data Collection Forms (2)
    Visit website
    Voucher Specimens
    Download PDF
    Ethics: WHO Ethical Consideration Guidance for VBDs
    Download PDF
    Ethics: Use of Human Participants in VBD Research
    Download PDF
    Trapping and Monitoring: Adult Mosquitoes
    Visit website
    Field sampling methods for mosquitoes, sandflies, biting midges and ticks
    Visit website
    Field sampling methods for mosquitoes, sandflies, biting midges and ticks, VectorNet project 2014-2018
    Download PDF

    Online Mosquito Identification Keys for Asia Pacific
    Visit website
    APMEN Pocket Book of Malaria Vectors in the Asia Pacific
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Keys to the Mosquitoes of Thailand IV. Anopheles
    Download PDF
    Online Guides to Anatomy and Identification
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Key to the Adult Female Anopheles Mosquitoes: Sri Lanka
    Download PDF
    Online Map of Malaria Vectors
    Visit website
    Vector Identifier: Online Portal
    Visit website
    Morphological Identification: Larval Anophelines in Sri Lanka
    Download PDF
    Keys to the Anopheline Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Pakistan
    Download PDF
    A checklist of the Anopheles mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bhutan
    Download PDF
    Anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Keys to the Anopheles Mosquitoes of the Philippine Islands
    Download PDF
    Bruce A. Harrison, Anopheles (Cellia) in Thailand
    Download PDF
    Bonne-Wepster, Anopheline Mosquitoes of the Indo-Australian region
    Download PDF
    Revision of the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia)
    Download PDF
    Stojanovich, Illustrated Keys Mosquito Vietnam
    Download PDF
    C.T. O’Connor and Arwati Soepanto, illustrated key of Anopheles mosquito Indonesia
    Download PDF
    A morphological key to the common mosquito species in the Pacific including medically important vectors
    Download PDF
    A global map of dominant malaria vectors
    Visit website

    WHO Guidance for Tube Bioassays
    Download PDF
    CDC Guidance for Bottle Bioassays
    Download PDF
    Larvicide Bioassay
    Download PDF
    Anopheles Mosquito Rearing and Insectary Handling Guidelines
    Download PDF
    CDC Guidelines for Methods in Anopheles Research
    Download PDF
    Behavioural and Social Aspects of Malaria and Control
    Download PDF
    Strategies to Address MMP Groups in Cambodia
    Download PDF
    MMP Groups in the Context of Malaria Elimination
    Download PDF
    Vector control and personal protection of MMPs in the GMS
    Download PDF
    Vector Control Method for Use by Individuals and Communities
    Download PDF
    The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control
    Visit website
    Positive deviance as a novel tool in malaria control and elimination: methodology, qualitative assessment and future potential
    Visit website

    While NMCP personnel at central level tend to carry out more sophisticated procedures for mosquito identification, it is the responsibility of sub-national staff to carry out basic entomological surveillance in foci area, including morphological identification and basic bioassays for insecticide susceptibility testing. This section provides guidance on carrying out these activities efficiently, including sampling strategies for collecting and preserving mosquito specimens and insectary standard operating procedures.

    Training Manual on Malaria Entomology For Entomology and Vector Control Technicians (Basic Level)
    Visit website
    Data Collection Forms (1)
    Download PDF

    Entomological surveillance is key for identifying transmission foci and response quickly to clear-up in that area. This is a collection of tools for decision-support planning tool for entomological surveillance activities.

    ESPT Entomological Surveillance Planning Tool
    Download PDF

    Download this WHO guideline here

    Vector control and personal protection of migrant and mobile populations in the GMS: A matrix guidance on the best options and methodologies

    Given their labour or other practices, mobile and migrant populations may have increased exposure to malaria mosquitoes. They are also more likely to have incomplete knowledge of malaria and lower access to preventive measures, and thus require targeted interventions that take into account their specific needs and the nature of their situation. From the broader public health perspective, it is also important to target mobile and migrant populations and their host communities that they pass through, live in or return to with vector control measures given the well-documented link between migration and the spread of malaria in the GMS, particularly in border areas, and the potential spread of multidrug resistant parasites due to population movements in malaria-endemic areas and across borders. This is a toolkit to guide the management and implementation of malaria prevention programmes for mobile and migrant populations in the GMS. It is targeted to people and ogranizations that already have some experience in malaria prevention, particularly national programme managers and programme staff working with mobile groups.
    Strategies

    Understanding and documenting the presence and characteristics of local mosquito populations in malaria endemic regions is crucial for the development of targeted and meaningful vector control (VC) interventions. Breeding habitats and behaviours vary according to different Anopheles vectors, and can also be affected by changing epidemiological, ecological, and structural features of any given region. Systematically collecting entomological surveillance data can assist local NMCP staff to identify reasons for the success and failure of current VC strategies, help with outbreak response predication and planning, and support the rationale  for research/investment in alternative approaches to reduce the vectorial breeding capacity/vector populations within a given area.

    This section provides key information and guidance to enable practitioners working in Anopheles vector control to successfully design, manage, and monitor related entomological surveillance activities and strategies. This includes global, regional, and country specific toolkits and materials developed by both National Malaria Programmes and partner organisations from across the region, and beyond.

    Cambodia Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance
    Download PDF
    Guidelines and SOPs for Entomological Monitoring and Surveillance, NMCP Myanmar 2019
    Download PDF
    Sri Lanka Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance, 2010
    Download PDF
    Entomological Surveillance Planning Tool
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance for Malaria
    Download PDF
    Monitoring Anopheles Vector Density Form: Pakistan
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for malaria
    Download PDF
    WHO guideline for preparing for certification of malaria elimination
    Download PDF
    WHO Guidelines for Malaria
    Download PDF

    Collection and Preservation
    WHO Manual on Practical Entomology_1
    Download PDF
    WHO Manual on Practical Entomology_2
    Download PDF
    Data Collection Forms (1)
    Download PDF
    Data Collection Forms (2)
    Visit website
    Voucher Specimens
    Download PDF
    Ethics: WHO Ethical Consideration Guidance for VBDs
    Download PDF
    Ethics: Use of Human Participants in VBD Research
    Download PDF
    Trapping and Monitoring: Adult Mosquitoes
    Visit website
    Field sampling methods for mosquitoes, sandflies, biting midges and ticks
    Visit website
    Field sampling methods for mosquitoes, sandflies, biting midges and ticks, VectorNet project 2014-2018
    Download PDF
    Identification (morphology)

    Online Mosquito Identification Keys for Asia Pacific
    Visit website
    APMEN Pocket Book of Malaria Vectors in the Asia Pacific
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Keys to the Mosquitoes of Thailand IV. Anopheles
    Download PDF
    Online Guides to Anatomy and Identification
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Key to the Adult Female Anopheles Mosquitoes: Sri Lanka
    Download PDF
    Online Map of Malaria Vectors
    Visit website
    Vector Identifier: Online Portal
    Visit website
    Morphological Identification: Larval Anophelines in Sri Lanka
    Download PDF
    Keys to the Anopheline Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Pakistan
    Download PDF
    A checklist of the Anopheles mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bhutan
    Download PDF
    Anopheline mosquitoes of Malaya and Borneo
    Download PDF
    Illustrated Keys to the Anopheles Mosquitoes of the Philippine Islands
    Download PDF
    Bruce A. Harrison, Anopheles (Cellia) in Thailand
    Download PDF
    Bonne-Wepster, Anopheline Mosquitoes of the Indo-Australian region
    Download PDF
    Revision of the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia)
    Download PDF
    Stojanovich, Illustrated Keys Mosquito Vietnam
    Download PDF
    C.T. O’Connor and Arwati Soepanto, illustrated key of Anopheles mosquito Indonesia
    Download PDF
    A morphological key to the common mosquito species in the Pacific including medically important vectors
    Download PDF
    A global map of dominant malaria vectors
    Visit website
    Insecticide Resistance

    WHO Guidance for Tube Bioassays
    Download PDF
    CDC Guidance for Bottle Bioassays
    Download PDF
    Larvicide Bioassay
    Download PDF
    Anopheles Mosquito Rearing and Insectary Handling Guidelines
    Download PDF
    CDC Guidelines for Methods in Anopheles Research
    Download PDF
    Community Engagement
    Behavioural and Social Aspects of Malaria and Control
    Download PDF
    Strategies to Address MMP Groups in Cambodia
    Download PDF
    MMP Groups in the Context of Malaria Elimination
    Download PDF
    Vector control and personal protection of MMPs in the GMS
    Download PDF
    Vector Control Method for Use by Individuals and Communities
    Download PDF
    The Farmer Field School: a method for enhancing the role of rural communities in malaria control
    Visit website
    Positive deviance as a novel tool in malaria control and elimination: methodology, qualitative assessment and future potential
    Visit website
    Anopheles: Insectary SOPs

    While NMCP personnel at central level tend to carry out more sophisticated procedures for mosquito identification, it is the responsibility of sub-national staff to carry out basic entomological surveillance in foci area, including morphological identification and basic bioassays for insecticide susceptibility testing. This section provides guidance on carrying out these activities efficiently, including sampling strategies for collecting and preserving mosquito specimens and insectary standard operating procedures.

    Training Manual on Malaria Entomology For Entomology and Vector Control Technicians (Basic Level)
    Visit website
    Data Collection Forms (1)
    Download PDF

    Planning and decision making for entomological surveillance

    Entomological surveillance is key for identifying transmission foci and response quickly to clear-up in that area. This is a collection of tools for decision-support planning tool for entomological surveillance activities.

    ESPT Entomological Surveillance Planning Tool
    Download PDF
    Vector control and personal protection of migrant and mobile population in the GMS

    Download this WHO guideline here

    Vector control and personal protection of migrant and mobile populations in the GMS: A matrix guidance on the best options and methodologies

    Given their labour or other practices, mobile and migrant populations may have increased exposure to malaria mosquitoes. They are also more likely to have incomplete knowledge of malaria and lower access to preventive measures, and thus require targeted interventions that take into account their specific needs and the nature of their situation. From the broader public health perspective, it is also important to target mobile and migrant populations and their host communities that they pass through, live in or return to with vector control measures given the well-documented link between migration and the spread of malaria in the GMS, particularly in border areas, and the potential spread of multidrug resistant parasites due to population movements in malaria-endemic areas and across borders. This is a toolkit to guide the management and implementation of malaria prevention programmes for mobile and migrant populations in the GMS. It is targeted to people and ogranizations that already have some experience in malaria prevention, particularly national programme managers and programme staff working with mobile groups.